Childhood arterial ischaemic stroke (AIS) is characterized as an acute onset neurological deficit due to an infarct in the arterial territory among children 29 days to 18 years of age. It differs in essential aspects from adult stroke. It is rare and its presentation is varied encompassing a wide variety of agespecific differential diagnoses, which leads to considerable delay in the diagnosis. The incidence of paediatric AIS is 2 – 6 cases per 100, 000 live births. The long-term sequelae of arterial ischaemic stroke include almost half of the children`s long-term neurological impairments. Despite substantial advances in the research and care of paediatric stroke, there is still controversy regarding the best treatment in children. Hence treatment recommendations have been based on extrapolation from adult guidelines. The purpose of this article was to give an overview of the incidence, symptoms, risk factors and treatment of paediatric arterial ischaemic stroke.