Conservative treatment of many temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pathologies is not always effective. Surgical treatment of TMJ aims at restoring the anatomic structures, occlusion, function and aesthetics. The methods of surgical treatment methods with their different possibilities improve the patients’ quality of life and increase their wellbeing significantly. Pain decreases and mouth opening increases. There are several surgical treatment options of TMJ: arthrocentesis, arthroscopy, arthrotomy, arthroplasty, disc operations and endoprosthesis (total joint replacement). The purpose of the present paper was to describe the methods of surgical treatment methods in detail. The indication for surgical treatment is a combination of pain, dysfunction and a change in anatomic structures. Acute infections, active facial skeleton growth and massive parafunction, e.g bruxism, are the contraindications. In conclusion, there are several options for treating TMJ pathologies. Accurate treatment choice, correct diagnosis and co-operation with different medical specialities help to restore the normal function of TMJ and the patient’s wellbeing.