Approximately 20-30% of the Estonian adult population are obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2). Obesity is related to a number of diseases that decrease patients´ quality of life and life expectancy. Besides BMI, there are several other factors that need to be taken into account when identifying overweight or obese patients with the highest health risk. In addition to already motivated patients who have indications for obesity treatment, special attention should be paid to working-age population with severe and morbid obesity, as well as to patients with abdominal obesity and/or obesity related diseases. The cornerstone of obesity treatment and healthy weight maintenance is permanent modification of lifestyle. Pharmacotherapy and bariatric surgery are reserved for patients with the highest risk.