Masked hypertension is a phenomenon characterized by non-elevated clinical blood pessure, but eleveted out-of-office (home and ambulatory) blood pressure. The cardiovascular risk profile of masked hypertension is similiar to that of sustained hypertension (elevated clinical and ambulatory blood pressure). The prevalence of masked hypertension, according to the data from the United States, exceeds 13%. Until now there has been insufficient evidence of masked hypertension. Current guidelines offer little guidance for management of this clinical condition. A more promising strategy seems to focus screening of masked hypertension on individuals with a baseline increased cardiovascular risk. Lifestyle modification should be recommended as effective intervention for treatment. Because of its prevalence and association with cardiovascular outcomes, masked hypertension should be a primary focus of future hypertension research.