According to the modern neuropsychiatry approach, the etiology of ASH has not yet been defined. There is ample evidence of the ASH’s hereditary predisposition. Research in the field of genetics has not revealed the significant part of de novo mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms in ASH development. Ascertainment of genetic determinism would provide more knowledge about the development of ASH symptoms in the near future. In further research of ASH it would be useful to combine genetic and imaging data. Application of neurological diagnostics in finding biomarkers has been actual for the past twenty years. In clinical practice, it would help diagnose ASH before the appearance of symptoms.