REVIEW – June 2007

Extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease


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Extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease can be found in 21% to 40% of affected patients. These complications, which can involve almost any organ system, can be divided into 3 groups. The first affecting the skin, joints, eye and mouth includes preferably patients with colonic disease. In these patients the activity of extraintestinal manifestations often parallels the activity of the underlying luminal disease. The second group comprises extraintestinal manifestations that occur   secondary to complications of the underlying disease, mostly in patients with Crohn’s disease. These manifestations include kidney stones, obstructive uropathy, gallstones, or malabsorption. The third group includes all manifestations whose course appears to be unrelated to bowel disease activity and that cannot be placed into either of the first two groups. This review focuses on the most common extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease.