Fibromyalgia (FM) is a relatively common idiopathic chronic pain syndrome with a complex multidisciplinary symptomatology, which is characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain lasting longer than 3 months and having bilateral sites of amplified points of tenderness. The etiology and pathogenesis of FM are complicated and not entirely understood. Recent understanding of FM’s pathophysiological mechanisms suggests that it is a disorder which is mainly related to central nervous system’s malfunction, resulting in amplification of pain transmission and interpretation. However, some data suggest peripheral involvement as well. In daily clinical practice diagnostic criteria are used which should be satisfied in diagnosing FM. The treatment possibilities have been expanded lately. Management of FM should be complex and include both pharmacological and nonpharmacological approaches, aimed to improve the symptoms, functioning and quality of life of persons with FM. Recent advances in the understanding of FM and its treatment are reviewed in the current article.