REVIEW – February 2021

Gilles de la Tourette syndrome – a continuously mysterious disorder

Authors: Kadri-Ann Parmas

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The purpose of this study was to give an overview of the epidemiology, etiopathogenesis, diagnostics and treatment of the Tourette syndrome (TS), a childhood-onset chronic neurological disorder with manifestations including multiple motor and phonic tics. TS is associated with genetic, autoimmune, and pre- and perinatal problems, which leads to phenotypic heterogeneity. Evidence increasingly implicates alterations in basal ganglia function, cortico-striatothalamo-cortical (CSTC) pathways and neurochemical components. The prevalence of TS is 0.3-0.8% and about 90% of patients may have psychiatric comorbidities such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The diagnosis is made clinically and relies on a comprehensive family history. Treatment methods include cognitivebehavioural therapy and pharmacotherapy. There can be an occasional need for neurosurgical intervention. More prospective controlled trials are necessary to expand the knowledge about the etiopathogenesis of the disorder.