The most common forms of diabetes mellitus are type 1 (autoimmune) and type 2
diabetes. Recent studies have shown that the number of people with type 2 diabetes,
carrying organ-specific antibodies, is 6–50% in different populations. This specific
disease form is called latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA). The
immunological markers of type 1 diabetes are autoantibodies which can predict type
1diabetes in relatives of type 1 diabetic probands as well as in general population.
They also differentiate between type 1 and type 2 diabetes. There is a strong
association of type 1 diabetes with the highly polymorphic HLA class II immune
recognition molecules DR and DQ. Thus HLA genotyping has become an important
tool for identifying subjects at risk for developing type 1 diabetes.