REVIEW – February 2024

Long-term outcome of extreme prematurity


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The number of people born prematurely, including extremely prematurely (< 28 completed gestational weeks) has increased over the last several decades. Their time in intensive care is often complicated. Disturbed organ development, together with complications during the neonatal period, contribute to the causation of many medical conditions later in life. Cardiopulmonary function, kidney function, and neurological development are more frequently affected. Regionalization of treatment, advances in perinatal treatment, medical technology and knowledge, supporting family-centered treatment, and raising awareness among healthcare workers have affected longterm outcomes for extremely premature neonates. Prematurity is a chronic condition requiring complex management and longterm follow-up to intervene with preventive measures, detect diseases, and swiftly offer the best available treatment.