REVIEW – October 2018

Paediatric venous thrombembolism:an overview of the literature and data from Tallinn Children`s Hospital

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The incidence of paediatric venous thrombembolism (VTE) is increasing due to improved medical interventions and increasing survival rates of children with chronic illnesses. We present an overview on the epidemiology, risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of pediatric VTE, as well as on the VTE cases reported at Tallinn Children’s Hospital. The majority of VTEs in children are associated with serious disease or multiple risk factors. Risk factors for pediatric VTE can be inherited, acquired or related to different medical conditions and their treatment. The clinical presentation of VTE depends on the localization of thrombi. The main modality used for diagnosing VTE in paediatric patients is ultrasound. When planning the treatment of VTE, it is important to take into account several paediatrics specific aspects. Evidence from Tallinn Children’s Hospital shows that the diagnosis of pediatric VTE as well as its treatment strategies are consistent with available guidelines and recommendations.