In the current retrospective survey we analysed the prevalence of major genital tract diseases and their influence on testis volume in infertile men and controls (young men) in Estonia. Both groups were investigated by one investigator according to standard methods during the same period of time. It turned out that the average volume of both testes was significantly larger in young Estonian men than in infertile men. Considerably more cases of varicocele testis and epididymal pathologies were observed in the latter group. Infertile men had more often suffered from orchitis, mumpsorchitis and clinically significant traumas of the testis. Decrease in testicular volume was detected in both groups of men with varicocele disease, such decrease being dependent on the size of varicocele in both groups.