Physical activity and health-related behaviours have important health promoting effects in cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease in particular. The aim of this study was to investigate the anthropometric indices and health-related behaviours among female university students. Anthropometric measurements, arm force, vital capacity, exercise test on the bicycle ergometer (PWC 170) and a health-related behaviour questionnaire were carried out in 544 female university students. The mean anthropometric indices demonstrated a statistically significant increase in the study subjects after an interval of 30 years. The results revealed a decrease in weight in female students of the University of Tartu. Efforts towards weight control can be associated with healthy behavioural changes, increasing exercise and reducing fat intake. The generally positive relationships revealed in the anthropometric indices, are related to participation in sports and observance of healthy behaviours. Regular physical activity and health-related behaviours have a strong positive impact on physical fitness, particularly on aerobic capacity which is the most important health promoting component.