Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrythmia in general population and is a major cause of stroke, heart failure and cognitive impairment. Its prevalence rises markedly with increasing age. Contemporary treatment has two central components: rate control to manage the symptoms and anticoagulation for preventing major thromboembolism related complications. Owing to numerous outreach programmes and better availability of direct oral anticoagulants, Estonia has seen great improvements in the management of the disease. Regular pulse palpation of elderly patients during appointments and nationwide campaigns could help further reduce the morbidity caused by atrial fibrillation.