The pathognomic feature of Caplan syndrome or rheumatoid pneumoconiosis is a typical radiographic finding in the lungs of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and pneumoconiosis. Differential diagnosis includes malignancy and tuberculosis. Treatment is symptomatic; disease-specific treatment is currently unavailable. Prevention remains to be the most important measure.
The article describes a case of rheumatoid pneumoconiosis in a patient in whom specific radiological changes were revealed during routine screening. The correct diagnostic hypothesis was a direct result of a careful anamnesis, in particular, occupational anamnesis.