Disease-related malnutrition is a common phenomenon both in hospital practice and in the general population, especially amongst the elderly. It is still poorly recognised but has a major negative impact on prognosis and makes a significant contribution to mortality. Better recognition of the risk of malnutrition and appropriate supportive interventions are clinically effective, reduce morbidity, can reduce mortality and, importantly, reduce medical costs. Clinical nutrition is a relatively new but rapidly developing branch of medical science in Estonia, and some of its many applications to current practice are outlined in the present contribution. Energetic support and encouragement from the academic and professional communities in Estonia are being coupled productively with an intelligent and responsive input from the country’s healthcare system.