REVIEW – August 2022

Epilepsy surgery – an underutilized treatment for drug-resistant epilepsy

Authors: Kateriine Orav

Articles PDF


Drug-resistant epilepsy is associated with increased disability and 5-10 times higher morbidity. Patients with drug-resistant epilepsy should be considered for epilepsy surgery as up to 70% of patients undergoing surgery may become seizure free after surgery. However, less than 1% of patients with drug-resistant epilepsy are referred to epilepsy centres for presurgical evaluation. Early referral of patients is the best opportunity to avoid irreversible psychosocial problems, disability and premature death in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. For patients who are not eligible for epilepsy surgery, neuromodulation devices such as vagus nerve stimulation, can be offered.