Bacterial meningitis due to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is a serious invasive disease among children under 5 years of age. The incidence of Hib meningitis was 23/100 000 before the Hib vaccine became available in Europe. The Hib vaccine is not currently included in the immunization programme in Estonia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology of Hib meningitis in children in Estonia in 1998–2002. Haemophilus influenzae type b was the major cause of bacterial meningitis in children under 5 years of age with the incidence of the disease 24/100 000 in this age group.