Anemia is common in heart failure patients and is associated with increased mortality risk. Anemia is multifactorial regarding its etiology. Hemodynamic consequences of anemia may contribute to the progression of heart failure symptoms and ventricular remodelling. Preliminary trials in patients with chronic heart failure demonstrate that erythropoietin therapy is well-tolerated and associated with short-term clinical benefits. The effects of long-term erythropoietic therapy on clinical outcomes are still unknown.